Hisar city is one of the important and fast growing urban centers of Haryana. It has grown to a vital position on the urban map of Haryana. It has come up because of location factors. Its location is such that for any development away from the G.T. Road Hisar draws the attention. The city is catering to the needs of not only the population of the district but also to the population of adjoining areas of Rajasthan and Punjab. People from Punjab and Rajasthan come here for medical treatment, for the purchase of good quality seeds, cows, buffaloes, bullocks and sheep etc. and also to get good education.
The present city of Hisar, one of the important cities of North India, is located at 2905'5"north latitude and 75045'55" east longitudes. It is situated one hundred sixty four kilometers west to Delhi on the National Highway number ten. .
The city of Hisar was founded by a Muslim ruler, Firozshah Tughlaq in 1354 A.D. ‘Hisar’ is an Arabic word which means ‘Fort’. The city, which we know today as ‘Hisar’, was originally called ‘Hisar Firoza (also Hisar-e-Firoza) or in other words the ‘Fort of Firoz’. But as the days rolled by, the very word ‘Firoza’ was dropped from its original name.
It was in these lands that the very first evidence of the presence of man was discovered with the excavation of Agroha, Banawali and Kunal. All of these were the pre-Harappan settlements, bringing for us the very first images of pre-Historic times. The presence of the pillar in Hisar fort belonging to the time of Emperor Ashoka (234 A.D.) originally from Agroha, the discovery of coins of the Kushan Kings tells tales of ancient India.
The construction work of the Hisar city was started in the year 1354 A.D. under the personal supervision of Firozshah himself who stayed here for a sufficient time. The boundary wall of Hisar Firoza was built up of stones brought from the hills of Narsai. The Fort city was also surrounded by big ditch dug round the wall. A large and deep tank was constructed inside the fort, and the water used to replenish the ditch. Inside the fort a fine palace, having a complex of different buildings was built. Well laid out gardens added to the beauty of the palace. The initial stage of the city, it was reported, was completed after the incessant work of two and a half years.
The nobles and Amirs were also directed by the Sultan to get the residences built here. The buildings were constructed with lime and burnt bricks. The fort-city had four gates which were subsequently named as the Delhi Gate and Mori Gate to the east, the Nagori Gate to the south and Talaqi Gate to the west.
While constructing the palace, popularly known as ‘Gujari Mahal’ for his beloved, Firozshah also built a new city around it. The Gujari Mahal still stands in its austere majesty. This palace is a complex of different buildings, including the royal residence of the sultan Firozshah, Shahi Darwaza, Diwan-e-Aam, Baradari with three tehkhanas, a Hamam, a Mosque and a Pillar. The style of architecture of the Gujari Mahal is dignified. The palace has beautifully carved stone pillars.
It is true that most of the materials used for the constructing the Gujari Mahal complex was of Hindu or Jain temples, but there is nothing unusual about it because the conquerors would often do like that. It is thus a routine practice of history.
In 1408 Hisar felt into the hands of the rebels, but was recovered by the royal army under the Emperor Mahmud Tughlaq in person. In 1411 the tract of Hansi came into the hands of Khizar Khan, and he ascended to the throne of Delhi in 1414 as the first Sultan of Sayyad Dynasty. In 1420 the fief of Hisar was conferred on Mahmud Hassan as reward for good services. During the feeble dynasty of the Lodhis (1451-1526) Hisar rather Haryana continued to form a parts of Haryana, was granted as a fief to Muhabbat Khan in the reign of Bahlol Lodi (1451-89)
When Babur invaded India in the 1524-26, Hisar was an important strategic center of Ibrahim Lodi’s empire. Before the battle of Panipat in 1526, on reaching the Ghaggar, Babur learnt that the troops from Hisar, led by Hamid Khan, were advancing towards him. He then dispatched prince Humayun with a sufficient number of army who succeeded in defeating the enemy. Babur handed over the city of Hisar to Humayun as a reward for his success in his first military expedition. Humayun ruled over India twice first from 1530 to 1540 and again from 1555 to 1556. During his first reign a mosque known as Jama Masjid was built here by Amir Muhammad in 1535.
During Akbar’s reign (1556-1605) Hisar became once more a place of considerable importance. It was made the headquarters of the revenue Division known as sirkar. As some of Mughal Princes who were attached with Hisar, subsequently became the Emperors. The city of Hisar then known in the history of India as the Duke of Wellington of Mughal Era.
The last noteworthy actor in the history of the tract of Hisar before the advent of the British power was George Thomas (1756-1802). He was an independent ruler of the tract of Haryana, including Hisar, from 1797m to 1802. The Jahaz Pul and the Jahaz Kothi situated to the east of the city of Hisar, still remind the great Irish adventurer. Thomas used the Jahaz Kothi, which was once a Jain temple and afterwards converted into a mosque, as a residence.
It gained importance in early sixties when Agriculture University was setup as an extension of the Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana. Ever since, the Government ‘s positive policies have played a vital role in the economic development of the city. The industrial policy of the Government has attracted large number of entrepreneurs and has resulted into the industrialization in and around the city.
Location and Situation Hisar city is one of the important and fast growing urban centers of Haryana. It has grown to a vital position on the urban map of Haryana. It has come up because of location factors. Its location is such that for any development away from the G.T. Road Hisar draws the attention.
The city is catering to the needs of not only the population of the district but also to the population of adjoining areas of Rajasthan and Punjab. People from Punjab and Rajasthan come here for medical treatment, for the purchase of good quality seeds, cows, buffaloes, bullocks and sheep etc. and also to get good education.
Climate Very hot summers and very cold winters. The maximum day temperature during the summer varies between 40 to 46 degree Celsius. During winter its ranges between 1.5 degree to 4 degree Celsius. The winds are strong and frequent during May to July. Normally the South Westerly current of summer monsoon brings the rains during July to September period. Intermittent dust storms are also common
Hisar continued to be the District Headquarters of the largest District in the state till its reorganization; some parts of it were transferred to Jind in 1966 when Jind was made a new District. Tehsil Bhiwani and Loharu estate were transferred to Bhiwani District when Bhiwani was carved out in 1974. It was further bifurcated when Sirsa become a new district entirely out of Hisar District. Now Fatehabad has been carved out of this district.
At present Hisar district consists of four tehsils and three Sub-tehsils. The tehsils are Hisar, Hansi, Narnaund and Adampur and sub tehsils are Barwala, Uklana and Bass.
Hisar is a divisional headquarter of the Divisional Commissioner and also the headquarter of Police Range. It is also a battalion Headquarters of B.S.F. 3rd Bn. H.A.P. and commando force. In order to bring under the roof of all the departments a five storied building of District Administrative Complex has been completed and offices shifted in 1980. It adjoins the new Judiciary Complex, which is also made functional. This administrative and judiciary complex is largest in Haryana, at a district headquarters may be one of the largest in the country. .